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Generic Competitive Strategies

The model of Generic Competitive Strategies given by Michael Porter is also known as Generic Business Strategies. Here we can explain this model with the help of positioning and its relation with factors given by Porter.

The model of Generic Competitive Strategies model mainly focuses on two approaches –

  1. Lower Cost
  2. Differentiation

Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies also focus on the dependence of business on the industry structure and the positioning of the firm in the industry.

Generic Competitive Strategies

  • This model is given by Michael Porter.
  • This model mainly concentrates on various competitive strategies.

It also correlates the relation of dependency of business on positioning two related factors-

  1. Competitive Advantage and
  2. Competitive Scope

Competitive advantage is derived from two approaches

  1. Lower Cost
  2. Differentiation

This Matrix is suggested by Michael Porter to describe three types of competitive or business strategies.

  1. Cost Leadership (lower cost/broad target)
  2. Differentiation (Differentiation/broad target)
  3. Focus (Lower cost or differentiation/ narrow target)

We can describe these three types with examples which are given below.

1. Cost Leadership Business Strategy

“Cost leadership is the competitive advantage of an organization lies in its lower cost of products or services relative to what the competitors have to offer.”

Lower cost of products or services can be a competitive advantage for an organization

If the company offers similar utility comparable to the market, customers can prefer these low-cost products.


1. Moser Baer India

  • Noida UP based world-class mfg. company
  • Well known for CD’s
  • Among the top three global companies for the data storage business

2. GCMMF – Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation –  Brand Amul – Ice Cream market

3. Tata Steel

4. Reliance Communication (Entry Level)

5. Uninor

6. Tata Docomo (Entry Level)

Achieving Cost Leadership

1. Accurate demand forecasting

2. Optimum Utilization of resources

3. Economies of scale

4. High-level product standardization/ Mass level production – leads to lower cost per unit

5. Target average customers by offering a general set of utilities

6. Cost-saving technologies

7. Differentiation

Conditions to use a cost leadership strategy

1. Price based competition (Cost is an important factor)

2. Standardized products/services  where differentiation has less important

3. A large number of buyers and bargaining with suppliers is possible

4. Less customer loyalty

5. Easy to switch from one product to another (or one service to another) – this is for customers

6. Differentiation fewer matters

2. Differentiation Business Strategy

If customers demand something special and innovative and they are willing to pay for it, the company can adopt a differentiation strategy.

The company can perform very well by offering special features, innovative products and can make differentiation from its competitors to get a competitive advantage.

A differentiated product or service stands apart in the market and is distinguishable by customers due to its attractive and special features.

  • A differentiated product
  • Special/additional features
  • Stands apart in the market & attracts customers
  • The premium pricing strategy can be adopted
  • Oover-performs its competitors


  • Orient Fans: Kolkata based C K Birls organization, premium price, exports to many stores including Walmart, technology differentiation- Air delivery, the reach of air and electricity consumption
  • Gati – A multinational transport company, technology-driven company, delivering premium value to the customers
    Differentiation- risk insurance for shipments, refund on failure to deliver on time, door to door pick up and delivery, time-bound operations, online tracking and safer transportation
  • Parle Agro -Frooti – the packaging

This is all about the model of Generic Competitive Strategies & examples.